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Climate Brief

Global carbon accounts in 2022

Carbon revenues were nearly USD 100 billion in 2021. This represents a more than 80% increase year-on-year (USD 53.1 billion in 2020, USD 97.7 billion in 2021). This increase is largely driven by the rise in allowance prices on the European carbon market, which exceeded the symbolic threshold of EUR 100/tCO2 for the first time in the summer of 2022.

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Articles & studies
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  • 25/11/2022 Foreword of the week
    Financial regulators must stenghen their game
    One year ago the creation of the Glasgow Finance Alliance for Net Zero - GFANZ – was announced. The expectations were as big as the numbers: a coalition gathering 500 financial actors representing 130 trillion dollars. Private financial actors were finally stepping in and mobilizing. But one year later, the coalition raises many doubts. On one side it faces criticism from NGOs, and on the other some US actors are considering leaving the coalition under the pressure of members of Republicans Party.  
  • 24/11/2022 Climate Brief
    The limitations of voluntary climate commitments from private financial actors
    Private finance will not fund the transition without a major commitment from public authorities For several years, and particularly since COP 26, considerable time and energy has been dedicated to the subject of voluntary commitments from private financial actors. These commitments, made within the framework of international initiatives, are expected to enable private finance to be mobilized for the transition to a carbon neutral economy.
  • 24/11/2022 Climate Report
    Implementing prudential transition plans for banks: what are the expexted impacts?
    The European Union has made rapid progress on the issue of transition plans for companies and banks. First of all, the CSRD directive obliges each listed company to publish its plan for achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. Published by EFRAG this summer, the standards set for these plans can be considered ambitious and commensurate with the challenges they face. With regards to banks, it is now clear that they will be required to publish their transition plan. What remains under debate is whether these transition plans should be integrated into prudential regulations, which would open the way to numerous possibilities of action and sanctions by supervisors.
  • 21/10/2022 Foreword of the week
    Public development banks in the spotlight: What we should be looking out for
    The end of the year is always a busy period for the climate finance world, with international events multiplying to take stock of the latest achievements in the implementation of the Paris agreement and to identify the next – more ambitious – steps to be taken by the international community. Though the climax of these […]
  • 08/06/2022 Climate Report
    Scenario analysis of transition risk in finance – Towards strategic integration of deep uncertainty
    The restructuring of the economy towards a low-carbon system will lead to develop activities that are aligned with the needs of a net zero economy, to restructure others in order to make them compatible with these needs and to stop harmful activities. The financial sector needs to anticipate these dynamics to address strategic risks and […]
  • 26/04/2022 Climate Report
    Include mandatory banking transition plans within Pillar 2
    The transition plans aim to establish a progressive decarbonisation strategy by 2050, in line with the European Union’s objectives. The European Central Bank, through Frank Elderson, as well as several NGOs are calling for transition plans to be made mandatory for banks and to be integrated into prudential regulation. This note first looks at why […]
  • 17/03/2022 Blog post
    French Presidential election: consensus for the new five-year term
    For a year, I4CE has been meeting with the campaign teams of the main presidential candidates to encourage them to prepare their climate program in order to reach the French objectives. In particular, we asked them to prepare their "climate budget": the State and more broadly the public authorities now play a decisive role in the necessary investments for the climate, and they must anticipate the considerable increase in these investments for France to achieve its 2030 objective. All the more now the European target has been raised. Preparing a climate budget is a mark of credibility and transparency, a test of consistency.
  • 14/02/2022 Blog post
    Finance: I4CE’s recommendations to the Basel Committee
    The Basel Committee is finally taking up climate issues! Founded in 1974, this forum which brings together the financial supervisors of the G20 countries and which provides the main guidelines for guaranteeing financial stability has been absent from climate issues since Donald Trump's mandate. It recently published a first consultative document on the principles of climate risk management and supervision. Julie Evain presents the recommendations addressed by I4CE to the Basel Committee.
  • 23/09/2021 Op-ed
    Op-ed | A public finance programming law for the climate
    In this op-ed published in a French economic newspaper, Benoît Leguet, director of I4CE, considers that the French Government must plan over the long term the necessary financing for climate change mitigation and adaptation, by instituting a public finance programming law for climate. France has set itself climate objectives, it must clarify what means it will devote to them.
  • 23/09/2021 Climate Report
    Indexing capital requirements on climate : What impacts can be expected ?
    As the main financier of the French and European economies, banks play a key role in financing the transition. Their current contribution in France is in the order of 8 billion euros per year, but this will need to more than double according to estimates by I4CE. To accelerate this shift for banking institutions and to prevent their increasing exposures to climate risks, the debate has tended to revolve around whether or not there is a need to reform prudential requirements.
  • 16/07/2021 Climate Report
    Climate stress tests: The integration of transition risk drivers at a sectoral level
    Since 2018, and under the initiative of the NGFS, the network of central banks and supervisors for greening the financial system, several central banks and supervisors have begun to conduct their first climate stress test exercises to determine the vulnerability of financial institutions to climate-related risks. In order to help central banks to carry out this type of exercise, the NGFS published in 2020, its first guide to climate scenarios analysis that can be used in climate stress tests.
  • 31/05/2021 Op-ed
    Op-ed | New climate-related disclosure requirements for French investors: achieving quality disclosure at last?
    The government has recently modified the environmental, social and governance disclosure obligations for French investors via the publication of an implementing decree which specifies regulator expectations. Romain Hubert of the Institute for Climate Economics explains why this decree was to be expected and necessary for climate reporting.
  • 20/05/2021 Climate Report
    Taking climate-related disclosure to the next level – minimum requirements for financial institutions
    In 2015, France pioneered requirements for climate-related disclosure from financial institutions, asking them to explain their strategy for integrating climate-related risks and for contributing to the achievement of the Paris Agreement objectives and the French national low-carbon strategy. Three years of implementation yielded mixed results and requirements are in the course of being updated in […]
  • 01/02/2021 Climate Report
    Can financial regulation accelerate the low-carbon transition?
    In recent years, financial regulators have encouraged financial actors to take account of “climate risks” in order to ensure both financial stability and the efficient functioning of markets, the two traditional objectives of regulation. This risk-based approach is an important first step, but will it be enough to deliver on climate objectives?
  • 01/02/2021 Climate Brief
    Can financial regulation accelerate the low-carbon transition? Summary for policymakers
    In recent years, financial regulators have encouraged financial actors to take account of “climate risks” in order to ensure both financial stability and the efficient functioning of markets, the two traditional objectives of regulation. This risk-based approach is an important first step, but will it be enough to deliver on climate objectives?
  • 22/10/2020 Blog post
    Financial Regulation and Climate : Next steps to follow in the coming months
    The public institutions that regulate and supervise private finance will talk a lot about climate change in the coming months. The European taxonomy that allows economic actors to identify activities that are favorable to ecological transition or the "climate stress tests" of the Banque de France and ACPR are just some of the issues they will have to deal with and that we invite you to follow. I4CE has synthesized for you the "climate calendar" of financial regulation in a graphics.
  • 10/07/2020 Blog post
    The European Commission’s next challenges for sustainable finance
    To accelerate and deepen this work, the new European Commission will adopt a renewed Sustainable Finance Strategy.  As the public consultation to define the future directions of this strategy draws to a close, Julie Evain from I4CE points out three challenges to be met in order to integrate climate issues into the financial sector.
  • 04/06/2020 Op-ed
    Op-Ed I Financial regulation and “green recovery”
    The pandemic caused by Covid 19 has triggered a major economic crisis. The emergency treatment of this crisis relied heavily on massive recourse to fiscal and monetary instruments already widely used during the 2008 crisis. But financial regulation was also mobilized to ease or alleviate prudential constraints in order to preserve bank financing for economic players, especially those most affected by the crisis. This illustrates the different facets of the use of financial regulation: primarily intended to ensure the efficient functioning of financial markets and financial stability, it can also be used with economic policy objectives.
  • 04/06/2020 Climate Report
    What role for financial regulation to help the low-carbon transition?
    States and more generally public authorities will not finance the transition to a low-carbon and climate-resilient economy on their own. Private financial actors have a key role to play and, over the past decades, they have taken numerous initiatives to promote "responsible investment" and "sustainable finance". However, the impact of these initiatives is far from commensurate with the climate challenge, , and financial regulation must play a role. This I4CE study analyses the different objectives that regulators can pursue to help the financial sector respond to the climate urgency, and provides an overview of the instruments at their disposal. It also highlights the challenges of implementing these instruments and identifies those that need to be used in the short term and those that need more time to be implemented.
  • 12/03/2020 Op-ed
    Op Ed I Banks’ capital requirements for the climate: Let’s ask the right questions
    For several years now, the idea of using capital requirements for environmental purposes has been gaining ground. But before this can happen, however, several questions about such requirements need to be resolved, particularly as regards the instrument to be used and the objective to be achieved. Michel Cardona from I4CE has released this OpEd available on Euractiv

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