Charlotte VAILLES
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Charlotte VAILLES

Research Fellow – Financing a fair transition

Charlotte joined I4CE in March 2016, where she works on just transition, and in particular on the issue of the access for all to the ecological transition.


Her previous research within I4CE has focused on European energy-climate policies (in particular the European carbon market), climate scenarios and their use to anticipate the stakes of the ecological transition.


Prior to joining I4CE, Charlotte worked at the International Energy Agency (IEA), first on the design of low-carbon power markets, and then in the World Energy Outlook team, notably on power and renewables.


She graduated from the engineering school Mines Paristech.

Last contributions
  • 19/10/2023 Climate Report

    Is the transition accessible to all French households?

    The issue of access to the transition for all households, in particular, for low- and middle-income households, has become central to the French public debate, as recently shown by the French President’s speech on ecological planning, when he referred to “an ecology that is accessible and fair, that leaves no one without a solution”. This growing awareness is particularly in response to the yellow vests protests: expecting households to take steps towards the transition if they have no access to solutions (electric cars, public transport, home insulation, heating upgrades) results in a rejection of transition policies and leads us collectively to a dead end
  • 14/09/2021 Blog post

    Where do the five new IPCC scenarios come from?

    The IPCC scenarios are constantly cited when we are interested in climate and its evolution, but sometimes wrongly, and often without a clear understanding of what they imply. On the occasion of the release of the latest IPCC report, in which five new scenarios have appeared, Charlotte Vailles of  I4CE explains how they were constructed and what information is available about them. 
  • 16/07/2021 Climate Report

    Climate stress tests: The integration of transition risk drivers at a sectoral level

    Since 2018, and under the initiative of the NGFS, the network of central banks and supervisors for greening the financial system, several central banks and supervisors have begun to conduct their first climate stress test exercises to determine the vulnerability of financial institutions to climate-related risks. In order to help central banks to carry out this type of exercise, the NGFS published in 2020, its first guide to climate scenarios analysis that can be used in climate stress tests.
  • 15/05/2020 Op-ed

    The European carbon market put to the test by Covid

    The current economic crisis has caused a drop in the price on the European carbon market (or EU ETS for European Union Emissions Trading System) and will contribute to the increase in the surplus of allowances. This highlights how necessary it is to reform the mechanism for managing this surplus or even to implement a floor price. However, for Charlotte Vailles from I4CE and Nicolas Berghmans from IDDRI, this crisis should lead us to consider the EU ETS no longer as the "cornerstone" of decarbonisation in Europe, but as a safety net.
  • 24/04/2020 Climate Report

    Scenario analysis of the issues of the low-carbon transition

    From implementation to disclosure by companies in the TCFD framework   The transition to a low-carbon economy represents risks and opportunities for companies. Indeed, far-reaching changes are expected in socio-economic systems, with uncertainties about their timing and magnitude, and their economic and financial consequences. In this context, forward-looking methods –in particular scenario analysis – are […]
  • 04/12/2019

    The proposals of 5 think tanks to meet the energy and climate challenge in Europe

    Authors: Nicolas Berghmans (IDDRI), Antoine Guillou (Terra Nova), Thomas Pellerin-Carlin (Jacques Delors Institute), Emmanuel Tuchscherer (Fondapol), Charlotte Vailles (I4CE) and Ian Cochran (I4CE) Almost four years after the signing of the Paris Agreement, the European Union (EU) must quickly raise its ambition in the fight against climate change if it wants to maintain its leadership […]
  • 07/11/2019 Climate Report

    Understanding transition scenarios – Eight steps for reading and interpreting these scenarios

      It therefore brings risks and opportunities for economic actors, which they must anticipate in order to optimise their strategy in a context of uncertainty. Against this backdrop, the use of scenarios – which are plausible representations of uncertain future states – is very useful in order to better understand the medium- and long-term challenges […]
  • 25/04/2019 Pièces jointes

    Download the agenda of the event

  • 13/02/2019 Climate Brief

    Very few companies make good use of scenarios to anticipate their climate-constrained future

    Climate change induces disruptions of our ecosystems, and the transition to a low-carbon economy significantly affects the political, economic and social landscapes. Businesses have to adapt to those changes, which entails risks and opportunities. Some changes are already visible today, but the deepest changes are expected to materialize over the mid to long term, and […]
  • 19/04/2018 Special issues

    2018 State of the EU ETS report

    I4CE publishes the 2018 “State of the EU ETS” report, in partnership with ICTSD/ERCST, the University of Graz, Nomisma Energia and Ecoact. The report focuses on 5 key areas: Relevant Policy and Governance issues, including Phase 4 review Environmental delivery Economic efficiency and delivery, including protection against carbon leakage Market functioning Making the EU ETS […]
  • 08/11/2017 Pièces jointes

    I4CE Presentation – 12 years after implementation of the EU ETS : what conclusions, which stakes?

  • 06/11/2017 Special issues

    Key figures on Climate

    On the opening of the 23rd Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 23) which is  held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November 2017, I4CE-Institute for Climate Economics and the French Ministry of the Ecological and Inclusive Transition are pleased to present the 2018 edition of Key Figures on climate. Some key figures […]
  • 11/10/2017 Pièces jointes

    Presentation : EU ETS – Last call before the doors close on the negotiations for the post-2020 reform

  • 11/10/2017 Special issues

    Full report “EU ETS: last call before the doors close on the negotiations for the EU ETS reform”

    The EU ETS will not be the driver of decarbonisation of the EU economy until 2030 A new report analyses the reform proposals for the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) which are under discussion in the trilogue negotiations between EU institutions, as well as other possible evolutions of the EU ETS in its Phase IV […]
  • 13/09/2017 Climate Brief

    EU ETS – Last call before the doors close on the negotiations for the post-2020 reform

    I4CE, Enerdata and IFPEN published a policy brief on the reform of the EU ETS for the post-2020 period. Indeed, a window of opportunity to reform the EU ETS is currently open but is closing soon: the EU ETS directive is currently being revised for its Phase IV (2021-2030), and trilogue negotiations between EU institutions, […]
  • 07/07/2017 Blog post

    EU ETS: estimate free allocation for industry by 2030 with the I4CE’s simulation tool

    Three steps to understand the implications of the EU ETS reform on free allocation In the debates on the post-2020 EU ETS reform, the issue of carbon leakage and of the competitiveness of EU industries has been calling particular attention. I4CE has built a simulation tool to estimate the EU ETS free allocation in Phase […]
  • 14/06/2017 Blog post

    Renewable energies in China: From a proactive political approach to bottlenecks in the field

    Publication in ID4D blog Sébastien Postic, Charlotte Vailles et Marion Afriat from I4CE’s Industry Energy and Climate team have recently published blog post on the Ideas for Development blog coordinated by Agence Francaise de Développement. The deployment of renewable energies is a challenge for all countries. It requires a major transformation in existing infrastructure and regulations, which needs to […]
  • 30/05/2017 Blog post

    Workshop “State of the EU ETS 2017”: presentations available

    On 29th May 2017, I4CE, in partnership with the ERCST/ICTSD, the University of Graz and Nomisma Energia, invites you to a conference on the “2017 State of the EU ETS” report published in April 2017. 2017 State of the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) celebrates its 12th anniversary. […]
  • 05/05/2017 Special issues

    The 2017 “State of the EU ETS” report

    I4CE has published the 2017 “State of the EU ETS” report, in partnership with the ISCST/ERCST, the University of Graz and Nomisma Energia. The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) celebrates its 12th anniversary. As any other undertaking, it requires, periodically, an assessment regarding its well functioning, and the delivery of its objectives. The State […]
  • 04/11/2016 Special issues

    Key figures on Climate, France and Worldwide – 2017 edition

    On the day of the commencement of the Paris Agreement, and on the brink of the 22nd Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) which will be held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016, I4CE-Institute for Climate Economics and the French Ministry of Environment, Energy and the Sea are pleased to […]

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